Biological Molecules


Organic Molecule Name Structure Function Organelles Involved

Amino Acid

Amino Acid

  • As a monomer - building block of protein.
  • Polymer is protein, held together by peptide bonds
  • Ribosomes link animo acids together via peptide bonds to make polymers known as proteins
  • Turns purple in the presence of Biuret reagent
  • Foods containing proteins are anumal products, nuts, beans, seeds
  • Make up the "gates" in a plasma membrane that let certain things in or out of cells.
  • Protein is produced by ribosomes.
  • Proteins that are used by the cell are made on free ribosomes
  • Proteins that are exported from the cell are made on ribosomes attached to the rough endopoasmic reticulum.

Glucose

Carbohydrate

  • Glucose is a special monomer of carbohydrate, called a monosaccharide (one sugar.)
  • Glucose bonded to fructose, a monomer known as fruit sugar, is a disaccharide called sucrose (table sugar.)
  • More than 3 monosaccharides bonded together are known as a polysaccharide (starch)
  • starches with many crosslinks in a special pattern make up cellulos
  • Sugars are present when Benedict's solution heated with the sample gives a green, brown, or orange color.
  • Starches are present when iodine dropped on the sample turns a dark purple-black.
  • Sugars are produced by the chloroplast in plants using sunlight, water, and CO2.
  • Carbohydrates are the makn source of energy used by the mitochondria to generate ATP
  • Cell walls in plants are made of cellulose, the source of dietary fiber

Lipid

Lipid

  • A single strand of lipid is known as a fatty acid.
  • Three fatty acids are joined by a lycerol to make a triglyceride
  • Component of fats, oils, waxes, hormones, steroids, cholestero
  • Function is to store energy that won't be used immediately
  • All membranes in cells, including the membrane that encloses the cell, the endoplasmic reticulum, and the membrane that covers each organelle are made mostly from lipids.
2 ringsNucleic Acids 1 ring
  • Nucleic acids can have 1 or 2 carbon-nitrogen rings
  • There are 5 different nucleic acids.
  • Function, as DNA, to store the information needed to make another, identical organism.
  • Nucleic acids make up DNA and RNA.
  • Nucleic acids are usually in the cell's nucleus.

ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)

  • ATP = adenosine triphosphate
  • ATP is considered to be the "energy currency" of the cell.
  • Generated in the mitochondria from carbohydrates